The idea of a European Union united under common energy policies and energy security strategies, seems to be even more far-fetched, after the amendment of the old Gas Directive (Directive 2009/73/EC), concerning common rules for the internal market in natural gas. Following a long period of debates and impasses, characterized by strong disagreements among Western powers, in February 2019, Germany and France finally reached an informal compromise agreement on pipeline rules which unblocked the Nord Stream 2 project, whose main shareholder is Russian state company Gazprom, Europe’s leading gas furnisher.
Based on the European Commission’s proposal from two years ago, the amendments were adopted in the new Gas Directive (2019/692/EC) on 17 April 2019, the main goal being the application ‘of the rules governing the EU’s internal gas market to pipelines to and from third countries’. More specifically, the new Directive also changes the energy rules and the legislative framework for gas furnishers by encouraging competition and diversity on the energy market, a transparency policy of prices, and equality of chances for gas companies.
 Council of the European Union, European Parliament, Directive (EU) 2019/692 amending Directive 2009/73/EC concerning common rules for the internal market in natural gas, Official Journal of the European Union (May 3, 2019), https://www.europeansources.info/record/directive-eu-2019-692-amending-directive-2009-73-ec-concerning-common-rules-for-the-internal-market-in-natural-gas/.