The Author

Dimitra Koutouzi

Dimitra Koutouzi holds a BA in International, European and Area Studies from Panteion University in Athens, Greece and is currently enrolled in a MA program at Université Libre de Bruxelles in International Relations: Security, Peace and Conflicts. Her research interests include European Union’s foreign policy and Common Security Defence Policy (CSDP), post-soviet space and Western Balkans. Dimitra is fluent in Greek, English and German and has a good knowledge of French.

The European Union has been trying for many years to establish a single Defence Union. The first attempt of a closer defence cooperation between the member states was in 1998 with the Saint-Malo Joint Declaration on European Defence.[1] At the time the Eurozone was created and integration process among the members of the Union had to move towards defence too.[2] But, until the Lisbon Treaty got into force in 2019, the defence mechanisms inside the Union were developing very slightly.

The Lisbon Treaty provided the legal framework for more defence integration. The Common Security Defence Policy (CSDP) was framed by the Lisbon Treaty and provided the legal basis for the EU to conduct civilian and military operations abroad.[3]





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[1] Tardy, Thierry. “Does European Defence Really Matter? Fortunes and Misfortunes of the Common Security and Defence Policy.” European Security 27, no. 2 (April 3, 2018): 119–37.

[2] Mathiopoulos, Margarita, and István Gyarmati. “Saint Malo and beyond: Toward European Defense.” The Washington Quarterly 22, no. 4 (December 1999): 65–76.



One Response

  1. Ioannis Ant. Ragies

    Dimitra, good afternoon from Athens. Searching about PESCO (best favourite theme ever!), I ‘discovered’ you and your interesting articles. Bye!
    Dr. I. Ant. Ragies, Associete Professor of European/ Transatlantic Defence and Security, Hellenic Army Academy
    P.S. Beyond both being Panteion graduates, we probably come from the same Island!


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