The European Union has often played a primary role in founding the modern Middle East and, over time, it has emphasized the growing importance of this region in tackling international issues such as security, terrorism, migration and energy supply.
Some analysts assert that the U.S. and Europe share many common vital interests in the Middle East, leading Brussels to be so dependent on Washington that it is no longer able to develop an own regional policy without the support of the U.S.As a consequence, it could appear that the Europeans have lost their political influence either in rescuing the nuclear deal or in stabilizing the region alone;also alarming their regional partners.
Dalay, G. (2019) Europe must develop a Middle East policy independent of the US. Middle East Eye. January.
 See Dalay