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Energy security is a multidimensional concept because it carries the dimensions of availability, affordability, technological development, environmental sustainability, and governance.[1] The interpretation of these dimensions of the energy security changes according to whether the energy actor is on the side of energy consuming (importing) countries or on the side of energy producing (exporting) countries. While for importing countries, energy security basically means securing supply channels with low prices as much as possible, it means, for energy exporting countries, ensuring the continuation of demand and assuring that the transfer of energy sources will be in an adequate price for a long term.[2] Additionally, in the energy security relations between the exporting and importing sides, there is also another actor which is transit countries. For transit countries, energy security is related to maximizing their profits from the transit and transportation services that they provide between two sides.[3]

The International Environment Agency (IEA) underlines the fact that energy security is more likely to be customer-centric concept.[4] Therefore, the availability and affordability dimensions are more important for the importing countries. The World Energy Council (WEC) suggests minor changes to the definition of the IEA.[5] For the WEC, energy security is the effective governance of energy supplies from internal and external sources and the ability to meet energy needs of the future generations. Regarding the definition of the WEC, energy security can be provided if it is sustainable. However, it should be noted that this definition does not emphasize the idea of the affordability. That’s why the use of these definitions are changeable and dependent on which perspective an energy actor desires to benefit from.

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[1] Azzuni, A., & Breyer, C. (2018). Definitions and dimensions of energy security: A literature review. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Energy and Environment, 7(1), E268-N/a.

[2] Zhiznin, S. Z., Timohov, V. M., & Dineva, V. (2020). Energy security: Theoretical interpretations and quantitative evaluation. International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, 10(2), 390–400.

[3] Zhiznin, S.Z. (2010), Russian energy diplomacy and international energy security (geopolitics and economics). Baltic Region, 1(3), 7-17. Available from:

[4] International Energy Agency. (2014). World Energy Outlook 2014.  Retrieved from

[5] 2014 World Energy Issues Monitor. (n.d.). Retrieved April 16, 2022, from